Examination of abdominal wall perfusion using varying suture techniques for midline abdominal laparotomy closure

Bradley S. Kushner, Saeed Arefanian, Jared McAllister, Wen Hui Tan, Matthew Grant, Robert MacGregor, Arnab Majumder, Jeffrey A. Blatnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: With a growing interest in the primary prevention of incisional hernias, it has been hypothesized that different suturing techniques may cause various levels of tissue ischemia. Using ICG laser-induced fluorescence angiography (ICG-FA), we studied the effect of different suture materials and closure techniques on abdominal wall perfusion. Methods: Fifteen porcine subjects underwent midline laparotomy, bilateral skin flap creation, and three separate 7 cm midline fascial incisions. Animals underwent fascial closure with 5 different techniques: (1) Running 0-PDS® II (polydioxanone) Suture with large bites; (2) Running 0-PDS II Suture with small bites; (3) Interrupted figure-of-eight (8) PDS II Suture, (4) Running 0-barbed STRATAFIX™ Symmetric PDS™ Plus Knotless Tissue Control Device large bite; (5) Running 0-STRATAFIX Symmetric PDS Plus Device small bites. ICG-FA signal intensity was recorded prior to fascial incision (baseline), immediately following fascial closure (closure), and at one-week (1-week.). Post-mortem, the abdominal walls were analyzed for inflammation, neovascularity, and necrosis. Results: PDS II Suture with small bites, fascial closure at the caudal 1/3 of the abdominal wall, and the 1-week time period were all independently associated with increased tissue perfusion. There was also a significant increase in tissue perfusion from closure to 1-week when using small bites PDS II Suture compared to PDS II Suture figure-of-8 (p < 0.001) and a trend towards significance when compared with large bites PDS II Suture (p = 0.056). Additionally, the change in perfusion from baseline to 1 week with small bites was higher than with figure of 8 (p = 0.002). Across all locations, small bite PDS II Suture has greater total inflammation than figure of 8 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest that the small bite technique increases abdominal wall perfusion and ICG-FA technology can reliably map abdominal wall perfusion. This finding may help explain the reduced incisional hernia rates seen in clinical studies with the small bite closure technique.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3843-3851
Number of pages9
JournalSurgical endoscopy
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • Abdominal wall closure technique
  • Abdominal wall perfusion
  • Incisional hernia repair
  • Indocyanine green
  • Ventral hernia repair


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