Evolutionary Specializations of Human Brain Microstructure

C. C. Sherwood, A. L. Bauernfeind, A. Verendeev, M. A. Raghanti, P. R. Hof

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Human brain evolution has involved reorganization of neural structure sizes, the distribution of cell types, axonal innervation patterns, and the expression of molecules and proteins. Microstructural specializations are evident with increased neuropil in the prefrontal cortex, modifications of neuromodulatory innervation of the neocortex and basal ganglia, and greater proportions of energetically costly long-range corticocortical projecting neurons. Some microstructural asymmetries in cortical regions associated with language and handedness might also be evolutionarily unique in the human brain.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEvolution of Nervous Systems
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages121-139
Number of pages19
Volume4-4
ISBN (Electronic)9780128040423
ISBN (Print)9780128040966
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

Keywords

  • Chimpanzee
  • Glia
  • Gorilla
  • Histology
  • Human brain evolution
  • Interneuron
  • Microstructure
  • Neocortex
  • Neuromodulator
  • Neuropil
  • Orangutan
  • Pyramidal neuron

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