Evolution of the diagnostic value of “the sugar of the blood”: hitting the sweet spot to identify alterations in glucose dynamics

Faidon Magkos, Dominic N. Reeds, Bettina Mittendorfer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this paper, we provide an overview of the evolution of the definition of hyperglycemia during the past century and the alterations in glucose dynamics that cause fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. We discuss how extensive mechanistic, physiological research into the factors and pathways that regulate the appearance of glucose in the circulation and its uptake and metabolism by tissues and organs has contributed knowledge that has advanced our understanding of different types of hyperglycemia, namely prediabetes and diabetes and their subtypes (impaired fasting plasma glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, combined impaired fasting plasma glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus), their relationships with medical complications, and how to prevent and treat hyperglycemia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-30
Number of pages24
JournalPhysiological reviews
Volume103
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2023

Keywords

  • diabetes
  • hyperglycemia
  • obesity
  • prediabetes
  • β-cell

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