Evolution of Pulmonary Valve Management During Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot: A 14-year Experience

Linda J. Schulte, Paighton C. Miller, Amrita N. Bhat, Horacio G. Carvajal-Dominguez, Michael R. Chomat, Jacob R. Miller, Dilip Nath, Pirooz Eghtesady

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: The optimal repair strategy for tetralogy of Fallot remains controversial. This report presents a 14-year evolution of management of the pulmonary valve (PV) from transannular patch to valve-sparing repair to neovalve creation using living right atrial appendage tissue. Methods: A retrospective review of 172 consecutive patients undergoing complete repair for TOF between January 2007 and June 2021 was performed. Clinical and follow-up data were analyzed by repair group. Neopulmonary valve (NPV) creation using right atrial appendage tissue was introduced in 2019. Failure of valve-sparing repair was defined as needing reintervention for recurrent right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO). Results: Median age and weight at repair were 4.9 months and 6 kg, respectively. Median preoperative PV size and z-score were 6.4 mm (5.2-8.3 mm) and −3.2 (−4.1 to −2.1), respectively. Patients who underwent valve-sparing repair had larger PV size and z-score compared with patients who underwent transannular patch procedures (8 mm vs 5.6 mm; −2.1 vs −3.2; both P < .001). There were no hospital mortalities. Overall follow-up was 44 months. At last follow-up, 10% of patients who underwent valve-sparing repair had repeat intervention for recurrent RVOTO. Patients who had failed valve-sparing repair had significantly lower PV z-scores (−2.6 vs −1.9; P = .01). An NPV was used in 8 patients with a median PV z-score of −4 (−4.7 to −3.9). At 6 months, 6 patients (75%) had mild or trivial pulmonary insufficiency after NPV placement. Conclusions: Repair of tetralogy of Fallot is a safe operation with excellent outcomes. Valve-sparing repair avoids right ventricular dilation but may fail for RVOTO at a PV z-score <−2. NPV creation offers an alternative option in patients with a small PV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)462-469
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


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