Evidence of trospium’s ability to mitigate cholinergic adverse events related to xanomeline: phase 1 study results

Alan Breier, Stephen K. Brannan, Steven M. Paul, Andrew C. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Rationale: The M1/M4 preferring muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline demonstrated antipsychotic and procognitive effects in patients with Alzheimer’s disease or schizophrenia in prior studies, but further clinical development was limited by cholinergic adverse events (AEs). KarXT combines xanomeline with the peripherally restricted muscarinic receptor antagonist trospium with the goal of improving tolerability and is in clinical development for schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Objective: Test the hypothesis that trospium can mitigate cholinergic AEs associated with xanomeline. Methods: Healthy volunteers enrolled in this phase 1 (NCT02831231), single-site, 9-day, double-blind comparison of xanomeline alone (n = 33) versus KarXT (n = 35). Rates of five prespecified cholinergic AEs (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, excessive sweating, salivary hypersecretion) were compared between treatment arms. Vital signs, electrocardiograms (ECGs), safety laboratory values, and pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses were assessed. A self-administered visual analog scale (VAS) and clinician-administered scales were employed. Results: Compared with xanomeline alone, KarXT reduced composite incidences of the five a priori selected cholinergic AEs by 46% and each individual AE by ≥ 29%. There were no episodes of syncope in KarXT-treated subjects; two cases occurred in the xanomeline-alone arm. The rate of postural dizziness was 11.4% in the KarXT arm versus 27.2% with xanomeline alone. ECG, vital signs, and laboratory values were not meaningfully different between treatment arms. The VAS and clinician-administered scales tended to favor KarXT. PK analysis revealed that trospium did not affect xanomeline’s PK profile. Conclusions: Trospium was effective in mitigating xanomeline-related cholinergic AEs. KarXT had an improved safety profile compared with xanomeline alone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1191-1198
Number of pages8
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023


  • Healthy volunteers
  • KarXT
  • Muscarinic receptor agonist
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Phase 1
  • Schizophrenia
  • Tolerability
  • Trospium
  • Xanomeline


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