Evidence-Based Medicine for Nonsurgical Facial Rejuvenation

Amrita Hari-Raj, Emily A. Spataro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Options for nonsurgical facial rejuvenation treatment have increased significantly in both availability and popularity over the past two decades. However, there remains a paucity of clinical practice guidelines and evidence-based recommendations for these procedures. The purpose of this article is to assess the presence of current high-level research for various methods of nonsurgical facial rejuvenation using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Botulinum toxin injections remain the best-studied method, with several randomized controlled trials guiding recommendations for safety and efficacy. Several studies on injectable fillers document complications and recommendations to avoid these, but sample sizes are small and many are noncomparative. Deoxycholic acid has been well examined and Food and Drug Administration approved to address submental fat but has not been studied in other areas of the face. Although chemical peels, laser skin resurfacing, energy-based facial rejuvenation, microneedling, and platelet-rich plasma have a variety of facial rejuvenation applications with minimal side effect profiles, there is significant variability with treatment protocols, outcomes measures, and randomized controlled trials with extended follow-up to develop clinical practice guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)230-236
Number of pages7
JournalFacial Plastic Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 30 2022


  • Botox
  • evidence-based medicine
  • fillers
  • skin resurfacing


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