Evidence-based management of the second stage of labor

Brock E. Polnaszek, Alison G. Cahill

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The second stage of labor is defined as the time from complete dilation of the cervix to delivery of the fetus. The objective of this seminar is to provide a contemporary, evidence-based approach to management of the second stage of labor. This seminar reviews background maternal and fetal characteristics that impact the duration of the second stage of labor, the recommended evidence-based management (e.g. immediate pushing, manual rotation, operative vaginal delivery), and the maternal/neonatal morbidity clinicians must consider when deciding between operative delivery and a prolonged second stage of labor.

Original languageEnglish
Article number151213
JournalSeminars in Perinatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2020


  • Evidence-based management
  • Immediate pushing
  • Labor management
  • Operative vaginal delivery
  • Second stage

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