To test the hypothesis that physiologic hyperinsulinemia activates the sympathetic nervous system in humans, we measured changes in plasma norepinephrine as well as epinephrine concentrations during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp experiments in which normal volunteers were infused with insulin for up to 12 hours, at rates chosen to simulate the basal and postprandial hyperinsulinemia seen in insulin-resistant states. Infusions of insulin increased plasma insulin threefold (to ∼200 pmol/L) and 15-fold (to ∼1,000 pmol/L) in simulations of fasting and postprandial hyperinsulinemia. In neither experiment did plasma norepinephrine or epinephrine change significantly. In control experiments in which saline was infused for 12 hours, plasma epinephrine increased twofold (P < .05), but plasma norepinephrine did not change. Therefore, we conclude that hyperinsulinemia of the magnitude seen in the insulin-resistant humans does not increase sympathetic nervous system activity.