Everolimus dosing recommendations for tuberous sclerosis complex–associated refractory seizures

David N. Franz, John A. Lawson, Zuhal Yapici, Christian Brandt, Michael H. Kohrman, Michael Wong, Mathieu Milh, Adelheid Wiemer-Kruel, Maurizio Voi, Neva Coello, Wing Cheung, Kai Grosch, Jacqueline A. French

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Objective: The present analysis examined the exposure-response relationship by means of the predose everolimus concentration (Cmin) and the seizure response in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex–associated seizures in the EXIST-3 study. Recommendations have been made for the target Cmin range of everolimus for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and the doses necessary to achieve this target Cmin. Methods: A model-based approach was used to predict patients' daily Cmin. Time-normalized Cmin (TN-Cmin) was calculated as the average predicted Cmin in a time interval. TN-Cmin was used to link exposure to efficacy and safety end points via model-based approaches. A conditional logistic regression stratified by age subgroup was used to estimate the probability of response in relation to exposure. A multiplicative linear regression model was used to estimate the exposure-response relationship for seizure frequency (SF). An extended Cox regression model was used to link exposure to the time to first adverse event. Results: There was a strong, consistent, and highly significant relationship between everolimus exposure and efficacy, measured by TN-Cmin and SF, regardless of patient's age and concomitant use of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors/inducers. Results of an extended Cox regression analyses indicated that twofold increases in TN-Cmin were not associated with statistically significant increases in the risk of stomatitis or infections. Significance: The recommended TDM is to target everolimus Cmin within a range of 5-7 ng/mL initially and 5-15 ng/mL in the event of an inadequate clinical response, and safety is consistent with previous reports. Starting doses depend on age and the concomitant use of CYP3A4/P-glycoprotein inducers/inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1188-1197
Number of pages10
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2018


  • TDM
  • TSC
  • dose
  • refractory
  • seizures


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