Evaluation of tumor-infiltrating leukocyte subsets in a subcutaneous tumor model

Russell K. Pachynski, Alexander Scholz, Justin Monnier, Eugene C. Butcher, Brian A. Zabel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Specialized immune cells that infiltrate the tumor microenvironment regulate the growth and survival of neoplasia. Malignant cells must elude or subvert anti-tumor immune responses in order to survive and flourish. Tumors take advantage of a number of different mechanisms of immune “escape,” including the recruitment of tolerogenic DC, immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs), and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) that inhibit cytotoxic anti-tumor responses. Conversely, anti-tumor effector immune cells can slow the growth and expansion of malignancies: immunostimulatory dendritic cells, natural killer cells which harbor innate anti-tumor immunity, and cytotoxic T cells all can participate in tumor suppression. The balance between pro- and anti-tumor leukocytes ultimately determines the behavior and fate of transformed cells; a multitude of human clinical studies have borne this out. Thus, detailed analysis of leukocyte subsets within the tumor microenvironment has become increasingly important. Here, we describe a method for analyzing infiltrating leukocyte subsets present in the tumor microenvironment in a mouse tumor model. Mouse B16 melanoma tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously in C57BL/6 mice. At a specified time, tumors and surrounding skin were resected en bloc and processed into single cell suspensions, which were then stained for multi-color flow cytometry. Using a variety of leukocyte subset markers, we were able to compare the relative percentages of infiltrating leukocyte subsets between control and chemerin-expressing tumors. Investigators may use such a tool to study the immune presence in the tumor microenvironment and when combined with traditional caliper size measurements of tumor growth, will potentially allow them to elucidate the impact of changes in immune composition on tumor growth. Such a technique can be applied to any tumor model in which the tumor and its microenvironment can be resected and processed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere52657
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number98
StatePublished - Apr 13 2015


  • Chemerin
  • Chemoattractant
  • Immunophenotype
  • Issue 98
  • Leukocyte
  • Leukocyte subsets
  • Medicine
  • Melanoma
  • Migration
  • NK cells
  • Tumor microenvironment


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