Evaluation of the sigma 60 applicator for regional hyperthermia in terms of scattering parameters

L. B. Leybovicht, R. J. Myerson, B. Emami, W. L. Straube

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Scattering parameters adequately describe the interference between ports of a multi-portal electromagnetic device when the device dimensions are comparable with the wavelength of the electromagnetic waves within the device. Since the Sigma 60 applicator is a four-port electromagnetic device, the interference between ports (quadrants) is described by a 4×4 scattering matrix. The load and frequency dependence of the scattering parameters were studied. The exact values of the parameters depends on the load within the applicator, but typically have minima at frequencies around 80 MHz and sometimes at 100-110 MHz. The effects of the coupling between quadrants can be substantial. Marked changes in the heating pattern can occur, particularly if the phase of the coupling element and the phase between quadrants both approach 90° Examples are shown in which the effects of coupling can qualitatively alter the intended SAR pattern. Simple steps which can be taken to minimize this phenomenon are demonstrated. Recommendations for clinical practice are discussed. Scattering parameters obtained with a non-absorbing phantom can be used for the quality assurance evaluation of the device.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)917-935
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Hyperthermia
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1991


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