Evaluation of ion-implanted-silicon detectors for use in intraoperative positron-sensitive probes

Raymond R. Raylman, Richard L. Wahl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


The continuing development of probes for use with beta (positron and electron) emitting radionuclides may result in more complete excision of tracer avid tumors. Perhaps one of the most promising radiopharmaceuticals for this task is 18F-labeled-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (FDG). This positron- emitting agent has been demonstrated to be avidly and rapidly absorbed by many human cancers. We have investigated the use of ion-implanted-silicon detectors in intraoperative positron-sensitive surgical probes for use with FDG. These detectors possess very high positron detection efficiency, while the efficiency for 511 keV photon detection is low. The spatial resolution, as well as positron and annihilation photon detection sensitivity, of an ion implanted-silicon detector used with 18F was measured at several energy thresholds. In addition, the ability of the device to detect the presence of relatively small amounts of FDG during surgery was evaluated by simulating a surgical field in which some tumor was left intact following lesion excision. The performance of the ion-implanted-silicon detector was compared to the operating characteristics of a positron-sensitive surgical probe which utilizes plastic scintillator. In all areas of performance the ion-implanted- silicon detector proved superior to the plastic scintillator-based probe. At an energy threshold of 14 keV positron sensitivity measured for the ion- implanted-silicon detector was 101.3 cps/kBq, photon sensitivity was, 7.4 cps/kBq. In addition, spatial resolution was found to be relatively unaffected by the presence of distant sources of annihilation photon flux. Finally, the detector was demonstrated to be able to localize small amounts of FDG in a simulated tumor bed; indicating that this device has promise as a probe to aid in FDG-guided surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1889-1895
Number of pages7
JournalMedical physics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1996


  • positron
  • probe
  • semiconductor
  • surgery


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