Evaluation of intracranial stenoses and aneurysms with accelerated 4D flow

Thomas A. Hope, Michael D. Hope, Derk D. Purcell, Cornelius von Morze, Daniel B. Vigneron, Marcus T. Alley, William P. Dillon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to evaluate intracranial arterial stenoses and aneurysms with accelerated time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) phase-contrast MRI or 4D flow. The 4D flow technique was utilized to image four normal volunteers, two patients with intracranial stenoses and two patients with intracranial aneurysms. In order to reduce scan time, parallel imaging was combined with an acquisition strategy that eliminates the corners of k-space. In the two patients with intracranial stenoses, 4D flow velocity measurements showed that one patient had normal velocity profiles in agreement with a previous magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA), while the second showed increased velocities that indicated a less significant narrowing than suspected on a previous MRA, as confirmed by catheter angiography. This result may have prevented an invasive angiogram. In the two patients with 4-mm intracranial aneurysm, one had a stable helical flow pattern with a large jet, while the other had a temporally unstable flow pattern with a more focal jet possibly indicating that the second aneurysm may have a higher likelihood of rupture. Accelerated 4D flow provides time-resolved 3D velocity data in an 8- to 10-min scan. In the stenosis patients, the addition of 4D flow to a traditional MRA adds the velocity data provided from transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) possibly allowing for more accurate grading of stenoses. In the aneurysm patients, visualization of flow patterns may help to provide prognostic information about future risk of rupture.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-46
Number of pages6
JournalMagnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010


  • 4D Flow
  • Intracranial aneurysm
  • Intracranial stenosis
  • Phase contrast
  • Velocity


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