Evaluation of diffusion-weighted MRI and geometric distortion on a 0.35T MR-LINAC at multiple gantry angles

Benjamin Lewis, Anamaria Guta, Stacie Mackey, H. Michael Gach, Sasa Mutic, Olga Green, Taeho Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides a valuable diagnostic tool for tumor evaluation. Yet, it is difficult to acquire daily MRI data sets in the traditional radiotherapy clinical setting due to patient burden and limited resources. However, integrated MRI radiotherapy treatment systems facilitate daily functional MRI acquisitions like DWI during treatment exams. Before ADC values from MR-RT systems can be used clinically their reproducibility and accuracy must be quantified. This study used a NIST traceable DWI phantom to verify ADC values acquired on a 0.35 T MR-LINAC system at multiple gantry angles. A diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging sequence was used for all image acquisitions, with b-values of 0, 500, 900, 2000 s/mm2 for the 1.5 T and 3.0 T systems and 0, 200, 500, 800 s/mm2 for the 0.35 T system. Images were acquired at multiple gantry angles on the MR-LINAC system from 0° to 330° in 30° increments to assess the impact of gantry angle on geometric distortion and ADC values. CT images, and three fiducial markers were used as ground truth for geometric distortion measurements. The distance between fiducial markers increased by as much as 7.2 mm on the MR-LINAC at gantry angle 60°. ADC values of deionized water vials from the 1.5 T and 3.0 T systems were 8.30 × 10-6 mm2/s and −0.85 × 10-6 mm2/s off, respectively, from the expected value of 1127 × 10-6 mm2/s. The MR-LINAC system provided an ADC value of the pure water vials that was −116.63 × 10-6 mm2/s off from the expected value of 1127 × 10-6 mm2/s. The MR-LINAC also showed a variation in ADC across all gantry angles of 33.72 × 10-6 mm2/s and 20.41 × 10-6 mm2/s for the vials with expected values of 1127 × 10-6 mm2/s and 248 × 10-6 mm2/s, respectively. This study showed that variation of the ADC values and geometric information on the 0.35 T MR-LINAC system was dependent on the gantry angle at acquisition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-125
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of applied clinical medical physics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • DWI
  • MRgRT


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