Objective: To identify subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and characterize them as either categorical or continuous; to investigate familial resemblance for ADHD among sibling pairs; and to test the robustness of all results by using contrasting data sets. Method: Latent class analysis was applied to the ADHD symptom profiles obtained from parents or best informant about their offspring in 3 samples: a population-based set of female adolescent twins (724 monozygotic pairs 594 dizygotic pairs) and male (N = 425) and female (N = 430) child and adolescent offspring ascertained from high-risk alcoholic families. Results: Latent class analysis revealed 2 categories of clinically significant ADHD which were replicated in all 3 study groups: a subtype with high endorsements of ADHD inattention symptoms and a second combined type with high endorsements of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity items. Both appeared to be continuous across all 3 data groups. The high-risk families contained a class in which members heavily endorsed the ADHD 'fidget' item but not other ADHD items. A large proportion of the monozygotic sibs (80%) versus a smaller proportion of dizygotic sibs (52%) were assigned to the same latent class. Among the high-risk children and adolescents, 51% of the female and 41% of the male siblings were concordant for class membership. Conclusions: The pattern of latent classes suggested that ADHD consists of an inattentive and a combined subtype, within each of which lies a dimensional domain. These analyses further support that genetic factors are significant determinants of latent class membership.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1999|
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
- Latent class analysis
- Offspring of alcoholics
- Win studies