Conventional methods for diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infection are insensitive and often impractical because of the need for night blood collections. A sensitive and specific antigen detection assay has been developed for W. bancrofti, which is based on a monoclonal antibody (AD12) that binds to a repeated epitope on a 200 kDa adult worm excretion product present in sera from infected humans. The only formal evaluation of this assay to date was performed with sera from India. In the present study, we have evaluated the performance of the AD12 antigen assay in two laboratories with sera collected in endemic and non-endemic areas in Egypt. Antigen was detected in 57 of 59 (97%) sera from microfilaremic subjects, and in 22 of 139 asymptomatic and amicrofilaremic subjects who reside in a highly endemic area. Antigen titers were significantly correlated with microfilaria counts (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). Filarial antigen was not detected in most sera from amicrofilaremic subjects with clinical filariasis. Comparative antigen test results obtained from laboratories in Cairo and St. Louis agreed in 170 of 173 sera tested. Filarial antigen was not detected in sera from Egyptians with no history of residence in filaria-endemic areas. Specifically, nonendemic sera from patients with other parasitic infections (schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, ascariasis, etc.) were uniformly negative in the assay. We conclude that the AD12 filarial antigen assay is sensitive and specific for W. bancrofti infection in Egypt.