The transcription factor Ets-variant gene 5 (ETV5) is essential for spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal, as the targeted deletion of the Etv5 gene in mice (Etv5-/-) results in only the first wave of spermatogenesis. Reciprocal transplants of neonatal germ cells from wild-type (WT) and Etv5-/- testes were performed to determine the role of ETV5 in Sertoli cells and germ cells. ETV5 appears to be needed in both cell types for normal spermatogenesis. In addition, Etv5-/- recipients displayed increased interstitial inflammation and tubular involution after transplantation. Preliminary studies suggest that the blood-testis barrier (Sertoli-Sertoli tight junctional complex) is abnormal in the Etv5-/- mouse.