Estrogen and/or calcium plus vitamin D increase mandibular bone mass

Charles F. Hildebolt, Thomas K. Pilgram, Mary Dotson, Reina Armamento-Villareal, Jay Hauser, Sheldon Cohen, Roberto Civitelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Background: We have previously reported that estrogen/hormone replacement therapy (E/HRT) has beneficial effects on oral bone density over 3 years and that calcium and vitamin D supplementation has a lesser effect. Here we report on mandibular bone mass for 49 women (of the original cohort of 135) who continued in an additional 2-year, open-label extension. Methods: Postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive calcium and vitamin D plus E/HRT, or calcium and vitamin D only. Regression analysis of mandibular bone mass over time was performed for each woman. Results: Twenty-two of 26 women who took calcium and vitamin D plus E/HRT for 5 years had small mandibular bone mass increases (0.35 ± 0.38%, P <0.001). Seventeen of 19 women who took only calcium and vitamin D for 3 years had increases in mandibular bone mass (0.74 ± 0.89%, P <0.002). The largest gains in mandibular bone mass occurred during the first 3 years of the study. Conclusions: The data of this study indicate that E/HRT and/or calcium and vitamin D may result in increases of mandibular bone mass in postmenopausal women. Because of the long-term risks associated with E/HRT, caution should be exercised in prescribing E/HRT for prevention of chronic menopausal conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)811-816
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of periodontology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2004


  • Alveolar bone
  • Bone density
  • Estrogen replacement therapy
  • Follow-up studies
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Risk factors


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