Gα12/13 have been implicated in numerous cellular processes, however, their roles in vertebrate gastrulation are largely unknown. Here, we show that during zebrafish gastrulation, suppression of both Gα12 and Gα13 signaling by overexpressing dominant negative proteins and application of antisense morpholino-modified oligonucleotide translation interference disrupted convergence and extension without changing embryonic patterning. Analyses of mesodermal cell behaviors revealed Gthat Gα12/13 are required for cell elongation and efficient dorsalward migration during convergence independent of noncanonical Wnt signaling. Furthermore, Gα12/13 function cell-autonomously to mediate mediolateral cell elongation underlying intercalation during notochord extension, likely acting in parallel to noncanonical Wnt signaling. These findings provide the first evidence that Gα12 and Gα13 have overlapping and essential roles in distinct cell behaviors that drive vertebrate gastrulation.