Erythropoietin (Epo) is essential for formation of mature red blood cells (RBC). However, the function of Epo receptor (EpoR)-dependent signaling pathways in the regulation of erythropoiesis remains unclear. To determine whether specific Stat signals are required for RBC development, we changed the Stat signaling specificity of the EpoR. The wild-type EpoR activates only Stat5. Thus, we substituted the major Stat5 binding sites (residues 343 and 401) in the EpoR cytoplasmic region with the Stat3 binding/activation motif from gp130. We demonstrated that activated EpoRs containing a single substitution stimulate Stat5 and Stat3, whereas an EpoR with both substitutions stimulates Stat3 but not Stat5. We then determined the ability of these receptors to support fetal liver and adult erythropoiesis. Our results show that erythropoiesis is stimulated by EpoRs that activate Star5, both Stat5 and Stat3, or Stat3 in place of Stat5. These findings demonstrate that the specificity of EpoR Stat signaling is not essential for RBC development.