Significance: Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase 1 (ERO1) are crucial for oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These enzymes are frequently overexpressed and secreted, and they contribute to the pathology of neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. Recent Advances: Tissue-specific knockout mouse models and pharmacologic inhibitors have been developed to advance our understanding of the cell-specific functions of PDI and ERO1. In addition to their roles in protecting cells from the unfolded protein response and oxidative stress, recent studies have revealed that PDI and ERO1 also function outside of the cells. Critical Issues: Despite the well-known contributions of PDI and ERO1 to specific disease pathology, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these activities remain to be elucidated. Further, although PDI and ERO1 inhibitors have been identified, the results from previous studies require careful evaluation, as many of these agents are not selective and may have significant cytotoxicity. Future Directions: The functions of PDI and ERO1 in the ER have been extensively studied. Additional studies will be required to define their functions outside the ER.
- oxidative ER stress
- unfolded protein response