Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if single injection erector spinae plane blocks are associated with improved pain control, opioid use, numbness, length of stay, or patient satisfaction compared to intraoperatively placed continuous perineural infusion of local anesthetic after decompression of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary academic center of eighty patients that underwent supraclavicular decompression for thoracic outlet syndrome between May 2019 and January 2020. Forty consecutive patients treated with single-injection preoperative erector spinae plane blocks were retrospectively compared to 40 age- and gender-matched controls treated with continuous perineural infusion. Results: The primary outcome of mean pain scores was not significantly different between the erector spinae and perineural infusion groups over the three-day study period (4.2-5.3 vs 3.0-5.1 P=0.08). On post-operative day 0, mean pain scores were significantly higher in the erector spinae group (4.2 vs 3.0, P=0.02). While statistically significant, the score was still lower in the erector spinae group on day 0 than on day 1,2, or 3 in either group. Opioid use, nausea, length of stay and patient satisfaction were also similar. Upper extremity numbness was significantly less severe in the erector spinae group (36% vs 73% moderate-extreme, P=0.03) at 6-month follow-up. Conclusions: Seventy-two-hour perineural local anesthetic infusion did not provide superior analgesia compared to preoperative single-injection erector spinae blocks. Furthermore, there was significantly less long-term postoperative numbness associated with erector spinae blocks compared to perineural local anesthetic infusion.