Equal means equal: Cardiothoracic surgery in its second century

Marc R. Moon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Objective: As the specialty of cardiothoracic surgery turns the corner into its second century of existence, there has been an uptick in the number of women and underrepresented minorities entering the field, but we have a long way to go before race and gender equity prevails. Methods: In this report, specific barriers to diversity without exclusion and mechanisms to breakdown these barriers will be explored. Results: Barriers to inclusion include a long-standing deficiency in exposure, encouragement, mentorship, and sponsorship to actively attract underrepresented groups to the specialty. Diversity will not occur passively. It will take a concerted effort best employed through a top-down approach at the local and national level, and it has to seem normal. Conclusions: Cardiothoracic surgery is an outstanding field for anyone and everyone who seeks a challenging, rewarding career, regardless of their gender, race, or ethnic background. It is the responsibility of leadership to dispel the tradition that certain individuals are not welcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1381-1389
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • diversity
  • education
  • leadership
  • medical student recruitment
  • women in surgery


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