Non-vascularized and vascularized transplantation of epiphyseal plate autografts have been performed both clinically and experimentally for over 100 years. However, the ultimate clinical goal of vascularized transplantation of epiphyseal plate allografts for paediatric extremity reconstruction remains elusive, due primarily to the lack of suitably nontoxic techniques to prevent graft rejection. We have summarized the published clinical and experimental investigations of vascularized epiphyseal plate transplantation, and organized the experiments and clinical operations into four main groups: (1) local vascular studies on unmanipulated epiphyseal plates, (2) studies of epiphyseal plate behaviour after orthotopic replantation, (3) studies of epiphyseal plate behaviour after heterotopic transplantation, and (4) studies of epiphyseal plate behaviour after allograft transplantation. Prior investigations into the non-vascularized transplantation of epiphyseal plate autografts and allografts are presented as background. These groups of studies serve as the building blocks for the more clinically applicable experimental investigations outlined in the final section of this review.