Prostate cancer (PC) is immunosuppressive and refractory to immunotherapy. Infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and senescent-like neutrophils and T cell exhaustion are observed in the tumor microenvironment (TME) following androgen receptor (AR) antagonism with antiandrogens or androgen ablation. De novo post-translational acetylation of the AR, HOXB13, and H2A at K609, K13, and K130, respectively, and phosphorylation of H4 at Y88 have emerged as key epigenetic modifications associated with castration-resistant PC (CRPC). The resulting chromatin changes are integrated into cellular processes via phosphorylation of the AR, ACK1, ATPF1A, and SREBP1 at Y267, Y284, Y243/Y246, and Y673/Y951, respectively. In this review, we discuss how these de novo epigenetic alterations drive resistance and how efforts aimed at targeting these regulators may overcome immune suppression observed in PC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-381
Number of pages13
JournalTrends in Cancer
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • chromatin
  • epigenetics
  • immune suppression
  • prostate cancer
  • testosterone


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