Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a significant burden of disease worldwide. It is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy with an estimated prevalence of 1.1 million cases. Numerous factors have been linked to the development of CRC. Non-modifiable factors associated with risk include age, family history, race, and the presence of inflammatory bowel disease. There are many modifiable factors, which also affect risk such as dietary habits, level of physical activity, tobacco abuse, and the use of certain medications such as aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and hormone replacement therapy. Prevention of CRC through the removal of adenomatous polyp and the rapid diagnosis of early stage CRC remain at the forefront of disease management.