Research methods to study risk factors and prevention of breast cancer have evolved rapidly. We focus on advances from epidemiologic studies reported over the past two decades ad-dressing scientific discoveries, as well as their clinical and public health translation for breast cancer risk reduction. In addition to reviewing methodology advances such as widespread assessment of mammographic density and Mendelian randomization, we summarize the recent evidence with a focus on the timing of exposure and windows of susceptibility. We summarize the implications of the new evidence for application in risk stratification models and clinical translation to focus prevention-maximizing benefits and minimizing harm. We conclude our review identifying research gaps. These include: pathways for the inverse association of vegetable intake and estrogen receptor (ER)-ve tumors, prepubertal and adolescent diet and risk, early life adiposity reducing lifelong risk, and gaps from changes in habits (e.g., vaping, binge drinking), and environmental exposures.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbera041317
JournalCold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2023


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