Epidemiology and preventability of hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia in 2 hospitals in India

Sumanth Gandra, Sanjeev K. Singh, Murali Chakravarthy, Merlin Moni, Pruthu Dhekane, Zubair Mohamed, Fathima Shameen, Anil K. Vasudevan, Priyadarshini Senthil, Tejaswini Saravanan, Anu George, Dorothy Sinclair, Dustin Stwalley, Jacaranda Van Rheenen, Matthew Westercamp, Rachel M. Smith, Surbhi Leekha, David K. Warren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Studies evaluating the incidence, source, and preventability of hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB), defined as any positive blood culture obtained after 3 calendar days of hospital admission, are lacking in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Design, setting, and participants: All consecutive blood cultures performed for 6 months during 2020-2021 in 2 hospitals in India were reviewed to assess HOB and National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) reportable central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) events. Medical records of a convenience sample of 300 consecutive HOB events were retrospectively reviewed to determine source and preventability. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with HOB preventability. Results: Among 6,733 blood cultures obtained from 3,558 hospitalized patients, there were 409 and 59 unique HOB and NHSN-reportable CLABSI events, respectively. CLABSIs accounted for 59 (14%) of 409 HOB events. There was a moderate but non-significant correlation (r = 0.51; P =.070) between HOB and CLABSI rates. Among 300 reviewed HOB cases, CLABSIs were identified as source in only 38 (13%). Although 157 (52%) of all 300 HOB cases were potentially preventable, CLABSIs accounted for only 22 (14%) of these 157 preventable HOB events. In multivariable analysis, neutropenia, and sepsis as an indication for blood culture were associated with decreased odds of HOB preventability, whereas hospital stay ≥7 days and presence of a urinary catheter were associated with increased likelihood of preventability. Conclusions: HOB may have utility as a healthcare-associated infection metric in LMIC settings because it captures preventable bloodstream infections beyond NHSN-reportable CLABSIs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-166
Number of pages10
JournalInfection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 18 2024


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