Environmental risk factors

Gill Nelson, Brad A. Racette

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

3 Scopus citations


In 1949, Mjones conducted the first systematic study of the genetics of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and concluded that the disease was autosomal dominant with 60% penetrance (1). Subsequent studies have found a substantially lower prevalence of familial PD, beginning an ongoing debate regarding the relative importance of genetic versus environmental factors in the pathogenesis of PD. There are several techniques that have been used to determine the genetic and environmental contributions to the etiology of PD, including family, twin, population kinship, and geographic information system (GIS) studies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Parkinson's Disease, Fifth Edition
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9781841849096
ISBN (Print)9781841849089
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013


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