Chronic granulomatous disease is the manifestation of genetic defects of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase resulting in the absence of a respiratory burst. Patients with chronic granulomatous disease can develop chronic granulomas in many locations of the body, including the skin. Using an established murine model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) created by homologous recombinant disruption of the gene encoding the gp91phox component of the NADPH oxidase, in this study we examined cutaneous reactivity to sterile Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae. Injection of Aspergillus fumigatus into the dorsal ears of X-CGD mice resulted in an enhanced inflammatory response by 24 h, consisting of neutrophils, which developed into suppurative granulomas by 10 d. Intradermal injection of Aspergillus fumigatus into wild-type mice only resulted in a transient inflammatory response that resolved by 10 d. Injection of Aspergillus fumigatus into female carrier mice resulted in an acute inflammatory response that was similar to that of wild-type mice, but, at higher doses of Aspergillus fumigatus, many carriers subsequently developed granulomatous lesions that were qualitatively similar but smaller than those seen in X-CGD mice by 30 d. Consistent with the ability of X-CGD mice to mount an enhanced neutrophil-rich inflammatory response to Aspergillus fumigatus, significant levels of the potent neutrophil activator/chemoattractant leukotriene B4 were measured by mass spectrometry in skin biopsies at 24 and 72 h. In contrast to the exaggerated inflammatory response to intradermal Aspergillus fumigatus in X-CGD mice compared to their wild-type counterparts, similar levels of inflammation were seen in a model of delayed-type hypersensitivity using 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene. This study represents the first report of a cutaneous granuloma model in mice with X-CGD, which may also prove useful as a functional test to evaluate the efficacy of gene therapy protocols being developed for chronic granulomatous disease.
- Chronic granulomatous disease
- Leukotriene B4
- NADPH oxidase