New gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are expected to affect more than 290,200 new patients and will cause more than 144,570 deaths in the United States in 2013 [1]. When detected and treated early, the 5-year survival rate for colorectal cancer increases by a factor of 1.4 [1]. For esophageal cancer, the rate increases by a factor of 2 [1]. The majority of GI cancers begin as small lesions that are difficult to identify with conventional endoscopy. With resolutions approaching that of histopathology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well suited for detecting the changes in tissue microstructure associated with early GI cancers. Since the lesions are not endoscopically apparent, however, it is necessary to survey a relatively large area of the GI tract. Tissue motion is another limiting factor in the GI tract; therefore, in vivo imaging must be performed at extremely high speeds. OCT imaging can be performed using fiber optics and miniaturized lens systems, enabling endoscopic OCT inside the human body in conjunction with conventional video endoscopy. An OCT probe can be inserted through the working channel of a standard endoscope, thus enabling depth-resolved imaging of tissue microstructure in the GI tract with micron-scale resolution simultaneously with the endoscopic view (Fig. 68.1).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOptical Coherence Tomography
Subtitle of host publicationTechnology and Applications, Second Edition
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages32
ISBN (Electronic)9783319064192
ISBN (Print)9783319064185
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Barrett’s esophagus
  • Endoscopic OCT
  • Gastrointestinal cancers
  • Imaging probe
  • Optical biopsy
  • Radiofrequency ablation


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