Endoscopic creation of reflux in the pig

Abdelhamid M. Elbahnasy, Arieh L. Shalhav, David M. Hoenig, Keegan Maxwell, Robert S. Figenshau, Elspeth M. McDougall, Ralph V. Clayman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in the animal model for experimental purposes can be created either by open transvesical or endoscopic techniques. The concept of reflux creation is the same for both techniques: incision of the roof of the intramural portion of the ureter at the 12 o'clock position. The open method has the disadvantages of requiring a cystotomy and a lengthy healing period prior to initiating a study, thereby incurring additional expense and the problem of introducing several confounding factors. The open method is unreliable because of the resolution of reflux over time. Herein, we present a simple transurethral endoscopic technique for creating VUR in pigs. This technique was successful in producing persistent Grade II or III reflux in 94% of the incised ureters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-44
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Endourology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1998


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