Endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, neuroinflammation, and sigma 1 receptors as contributors to depression and its treatment

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The etiological factors contributing to depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders are largely undefined. Endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways and autophagy are well-defined mechanisms that play critical functions in recognizing and resolving cellular stress and are possible targets for the pathophysiology and treatment of psychiatric and neurologic illnesses. An increasing number of studies indicate the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in the control of neuroinflammation, a contributing factor to multiple neuropsychiatric illnesses. Initial inflammatory triggers induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading to neuroinflammatory responses. Subsequently, induction of autophagy by neurosteroids and other signaling pathways that converge on autophagy induction are thought to participate in resolving neuroinflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and neuroinflammation in the central nervous system. Studies focused on innate immune factors, including neurosteroids with anti-inflammatory roles will be reviewed. In the context of depression, animal models that led to our current understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying depression will be highlighted, including the roles of sigma 1 receptors and pharmacological agents that dampen endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated neuroinflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2202-2211
Number of pages10
JournalNeural Regeneration Research
Volume19
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2024

Keywords

  • allopregnanolone
  • fluvoxamine
  • ketamine
  • neurosteroids
  • postpartum depression
  • quercetin

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