8 Scopus citations


The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the central site for folding, post-translational modifi-cations, and transport of secretory and membrane proteins. An imbalance between the load of mis-folded proteins and the folding capacity of the ER causes ER stress and an unfolded protein re-sponse. Emerging evidence has shown that ER stress or the derangement of ER proteostasis contributes to the development and progression of a variety of glomerular and tubular diseases. This review gives a comprehensive summary of studies that have elucidated the role of the three ER stress signaling pathways, including inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) signaling in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. In addition, we highlight the recent discovery of ER-associated biomarkers, including MANF, ERdj3, ERdj4, CRELD2, PDIA3, and angiogenin. The implementation of these novel biomarkers may accelerate early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in rare kidney disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2161
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 2 2021


  • Biomarkers
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Kidney disease


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