End-to-end deep learning method for predicting hormonal treatment response in women with atypical endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial cancer

Seyed Kahaki, Ian S. Hagemann, Kenny H. Cha, Christopher Trindade, Nicholas Petrick, Nicolas Kostelecky, Lindsay E. Borden, Doaa Atwi, Kar Ming Fung, Weijie Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States, and atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) is considered a high-risk precursor to EC. Hormone therapies and hysterectomy are practical treatment options for AEH and early-stage EC. Some patients prefer hormone therapies for reasons such as fertility preservation or being poor surgical candidates. However, accurate prediction of an individual patient’s response to hormonal treatment would allow for personalized and potentially improved recommendations for these conditions. This study aims to explore the feasibility of using deep learning models on whole slide images (WSI) of endometrial tissue samples to predict the patient’s response to hormonal treatment. Approach: We curated a clinical WSI dataset of 112 patients from two clinical sites. An expert pathologist annotated these images by outlining AEH/EC regions. We developed an end-to-end machine learning model with mixed supervision. The model is based on image patches extracted from pathologist-annotated AEH/EC regions. Either an unsupervised deep learning architecture (Autoencoder or ResNet50), or non-deep learning (radiomics feature extraction) is used to embed the images into a low-dimensional space, followed by fully connected layers for binary prediction, which was trained with binary responder/non-responder labels established by pathologists. We used stratified sampling to partition the dataset into a development set and a test set for internal validation of the performance of our models. Results: The autoencoder model yielded an AUROC of 0.80 with 95% CI [0.63, 0.95] on the independent test set for the task of predicting a patient with AEH/ EC as a responder vs non-responder to hormonal treatment. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the potential of using mixed supervised machine learning models on WSIs for predicting the response to hormonal treatment in AEH/EC patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number017502
JournalJournal of Medical Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2024


  • atypical endometrial hyperplasia
  • deep learning
  • hormonal treatment
  • mixed supervised learning


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