Purpose of Review: To introduce recent advances in the understanding of diabetic retinopathy and to summarize current and emerging strategies to treat this common and complex cause of vision loss. Recent Findings: Advances in retinal imaging and functional analysis indicate that retinal vascular and neural pathologies exist long before the development of clinically visible retinopathy. Such diagnostics could facilitate risk stratification and selective early intervention in high-risk patients. Antagonists of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway effectively reduce vision loss in diabetes and promote regression of disease severity. Promising new strategies to treat diabetic retinopathy involve novel systemic diabetes therapy and ocular therapies that antagonize angiogenic growth factor signaling, improve blood-retina barrier function and neurovascular coupling, modulate neuroretinal metabolism, or provide neuroprotection. Summary: Long considered a pure microvasculopathy, diabetic retinopathy in fact affects the neural and vascular retina as well as neurovascular communication. Emerging therapies include those that target neuroretinal dysfunction in addition to those modulating vascular biology.
- Diabetic macular edema
- Diabetic retinopathy
- Neurovascular coupling
- Vascular endothelial growth factor