Introduction: Four less well-studied but promising “emerging” cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)biomarkers are elevated in late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD): neurogranin, synaptosomal-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25), visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1), and chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40). Methods: CSF neurogranin, SNAP-25, VILIP-1, and YKL-40 were measured in families carrying autosomal-dominant AD mutations. Results: The four emerging CSF biomarkers were significantly elevated in the mutation carriers (n = 235)versus noncarriers (n = 145). CSF SNAP-25, VILIP-1, and YKL-40 were altered very early in the AD time course, approximately 15–19 years before estimated symptom onset. All CSF biomarkers predicted important AD-related outcomes including performance on a cognitive composite, brain amyloid burden as measured by amyloid positron emission tomography, and the estimated years from symptom onset. Discussion: Early abnormalities in CSF tTau, pTau, SNAP-25, VILIP-1, and YKL-40 suggest that synaptic damage, neuronal injury, and neuroinflammation begin shortly after the commencement of brain amyloid accumulation.
- Alzheimer's disease
- Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease
- Cerebrospinal fluid