Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a significant public health concern, as it is associated with substantial morbidity. Prior research has evaluated multiple novel CKD biomarkers to supplement serum creatinine and proteinuria. The ultimate goal of this research is to find biomarkers that can be used to accurately predict CKD progression and to better time outpatient follow-up, and referral for transplant. Also, an optimal panel of biomarkers can augment the predictive value of proteinuria and serum creatinine by enriching patient enrollment in clinical trials. In this review, we discuss salient findings on 12 candidate plasma and urine biomarkers and their reported association with CKD. We explore the common pathways of CKD progression and the pathophysiologic processes of tubulointerstitial injury, inflammation, repair, and fibrosis that are potentially classified by specific biomarkers. We describe both pediatric and adult findings and highlight the paucity of pediatric research in CKD progression. It will be important for cohorts with longitudinal follow-up to evaluate these CKD biomarkers for potential use in pediatric clinical trials and routine CKD management.
- CKD progression