As technology has improved and the ability to apply this technology in the surgical arena has grown, surgeons have been able to perform more sophisticated operative procedures. Hepatobiliary surgeons are now able to use laparoscopy, immunosuppressive drugs, and technical advances in cryosurgery to accomplish magnificent results. The success and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, orthotopic liver transplantation, and trisegmentectomy for hepatic tumors depend on a high regard for and an accurate knowledge of the anatomy and some of the common embryologic anomalies of the biliary tree. The blood supply, ductal variations, and gallbladder anatomy of this area are often the source of major challenge to unprepared and unaware surgeons. The authors have attempted to stimulate an interest in, a respect for, and perhaps some desire to learn more about the important and fascinating anatomy of this region.