Elucidating under-studied aspects of the link between obesity and multiple myeloma: Weight pattern, body shape trajectory, and body fat distribution

Catherine R. Marinac, Catherine A. Suppan, Edward Giovannucci, Mingyang Song, Ane S. Kværner, Mary K. Townsend, Bernard A. Rosner, Timothy R. Rebbeck, Graham A. Colditz, Brenda M. Birmann

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Abstract

Background: Although obesity is an established modifiable risk factor for multiple myeloma (MM), several nuanced aspects of its relation to MM remain unelucidated, limiting public health and prevention messages. Methods: We analyzed prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study to examine MM risk associated with 20-year weight patterns in adulthood, body shape trajectory from ages 5 to 60 years, and body fat distribution. For each aforementioned risk factor, we report hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident MM from multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models. Results: We documented 582 incident MM cases during 4 280 712 person-years of follow-up. Persons who exhibited extreme weight cycling, for example, those with net weight gain and one or more episodes of intentional loss of at least 20 pounds or whose cumulative intentional weight loss exceeded net weight loss with at least one episode of intentional loss of 20 pounds or more had an increased MM risk compared with individuals who maintained their weight (HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.80); the association was statistically nonsignificant after adjustment for body mass index. We identified four body shape trajectories: lean-stable, lean-increase, medium-stable, and medium-increase. MM risk was higher in the medium-increase group than in the lean-stable group (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.14). Additionally, MM risk increased with increasing hip circumference (HR per 1-inch increase: 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.06) but was not associated with other body fat distribution measures. Conclusions: Maintaining a lean and stable weight throughout life may provide the strongest benefit in terms of MM prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberpkz044
JournalJNCI Cancer Spectrum
Volume3
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2019

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    Marinac, C. R., Suppan, C. A., Giovannucci, E., Song, M., Kværner, A. S., Townsend, M. K., Rosner, B. A., Rebbeck, T. R., Colditz, G. A., & Birmann, B. M. (2019). Elucidating under-studied aspects of the link between obesity and multiple myeloma: Weight pattern, body shape trajectory, and body fat distribution. JNCI Cancer Spectrum, 3(3), [pkz044]. https://doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkz044