Macrophages are specialized phagocytic cells involved in clearing invading pathogens. Previously we reported that engulfment and cell motility protein 1 (ELMO1) in macrophages mediates bacterial internalization and intestinal inflammation. Here we studied the role of ELMO1 in the fate of internalized targets. ELMO1 is present in the intracellular vesicles and enhances accumulation of the protein LC3B following engulfment of Salmonella or treatment with autophagy-inducing rapamycin. The protein ATG5 and the kinase ULK1 are involved in classical autophagy, while LC3-associated phagocytosis is ULK1 independent. ATG5 but not ULK1 cooperated with ELMO1 in LC3 accumulation after infection, suggesting the ELMO1 preferentially regulated LC3-associated phagocytosis. Because LC3-associated phagocytosis delivers cargo for degradation, the contribution of ELMO1 to the lysosome degradation pathways was evaluated by studying pH and cathepsin B activity. ELMO1-depleted macrophages showed a time-dependent increase in pH and a decrease in cathepsin B activity associated with bacterial survival. Together, ELMO1 regulates LC3B accumulation and antimicrobial responses involved in the clearance of enteric pathogens. This paper investigated how innate immune pathways involving ELMO1 work in a coordinated fashion to eliminate bacterial threats. ELMO1 is present in the phagosome and enhances bacterial clearance by differential regulation of lysosomal acidification and enzymatic activity.
- bacterial clearance