Eliciting preferences on secondary findings: The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results

Kyle B. Brothers, Kelly M. East, Whitley V. Kelley, M. Frances Wright, Matthew J. Westbrook, Carla A. Rich, Kevin M. Bowling, Edward J. Lose, E. Martina Bebin, Shirley Simmons, John A. Myers, Greg Barsh, Richard M. Myers, Greg M. Cooper, Jill M. Pulley, Mark A. Rothstein, Ellen Wright Clayton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Purpose:Eliciting and understanding patient and research participant preferences regarding return of secondary test results are key aspects of genomic medicine. A valid instrument should be easily understood without extensive pretest counseling while still faithfully eliciting patients' preferences.Methods:We conducted focus groups with 110 adults to understand patient perspectives on secondary genomic findings and the role that preferences should play. We then developed and refined a draft instrument and used it to elicit preferences from parents participating in a genomic sequencing study in children with intellectual disabilities.Results:Patients preferred filtering of secondary genomic results to avoid information overload and to avoid learning what the future holds, among other reasons. Patients preferred to make autonomous choices about which categories of results to receive and to have their choices applied automatically before results are returned to them and their clinicians. The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results (PIGSR) is designed to be completed by patients or research participants without assistance and to guide bioinformatic analysis of genomic raw data. Most participants wanted to receive all secondary results, but a significant minority indicated other preferences.Conclusions:Our novel instrument-PIGSR-should be useful in a wide variety of clinical and research settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)337-344
Number of pages8
JournalGenetics in Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017


  • Clinical Tools
  • Genomic Secondary Results
  • Incidental Findings
  • Preferences
  • Whole Genome Sequencing


Dive into the research topics of 'Eliciting preferences on secondary findings: The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this