Elevated Plasma Interleukin-18 Identifies High-Risk Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patients not Distinguished by Prior Latent Class Analyses Using Traditional Inflammatory Cytokines: A Retrospective Analysis of Two Randomized Clinical Trials

Andrew R. Moore, Shaun M. Pienkos, Pratik Sinha, Jiazhen Guan, Cecilia M. O’Kane, Joseph E. Levitt, Jennifer G. Wilson, Manu Shankar-Hari, Michael A. Matthay, Carolyn S. Calfee, Rebecca M. Baron, Daniel F. McAuley, Angela J. Rogers

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plasma level and latent class analysis (LCA) have separately been shown to predict prognosis and treatment response in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). IL-18 is a measure of inflammasome activation, a pathway potentially distinct from inflammation captured by biomarkers defining previously published LCA classes. We hypothesized that elevated IL-18 would identify distinct “high-risk” patients not captured by prior LCA classifications. DESIGN: Statins for acutely injured lungs from sepsis (SAILS) and hydroxymethylglutaryl- CoA reductase inhibition with simvastatin in acute lung injury to reduce pulmonary dysfunction trial (HARP-2) are two large randomized, controlled trials in ARDS in which both LCA assignments and IL-18 levels were shown to predict mortality. We first evaluated the overlap between high IL-18 levels (≥ 800 pg/mL) with prior LCA class assignments using McNemar’s test and then tested the correlation between IL-18 and LCA biomarkers using Pearson’s exact test on log-2 transformed values. Our primary analysis was the association of IL-18 level with 60-day mortality in the hypoinflammatory LCA class, which was assessed using the Fisher exact test and Cox proportional hazards modeling adjusting for age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, and gender. Secondary analyses included the association of IL-18 and LCA with mortality within each IL-18/LCA subgroup. SETTING: Secondary analysis of two multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trials of ARDS patients. SUBJECTS: Six hundred eighty-three patients in SAILS and 511 patients in HARP-2. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We found that 33% of patients in SAILS and HARP-2 were discordant by IL-18 level and LCA class. We further found that IL-18 level was only modestly correlated (0.17-0.47) with cytokines used in the LCA assignment. A substantial subset of individuals classified as hypoinflammatory by LCA (14% of SAILS and 43% of HARP-2) were classified as high risk by elevated IL-18. These individuals were at high risk for mortality in both SAILS (42% 60-d mortality, odds ratio [OR] 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8-6.1; p < 0.001) and HARP-2 (27% 60-d mortality, OR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.8; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma IL-18 level provides important additional prognostic information to LCA subphenotypes defined largely by traditional inflammatory biomarkers in two large ARDS cohorts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E269-E274
JournalCritical care medicine
Volume51
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2023

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