The alarmin calprotectin (S100A8/A9) is thought to drive a cytokine storm, a hallmark of severe COVID-19. Recent studies report circulating S100A8/A9 levels can distinguish COVID-19 severity but have only been conducted in non-U.S. cohorts and mainly focus on serum S100A8/A9 levels. Thus, we quantified S100A8/A9 in serum and urine samples from a hospital cohort in St. Louis, Missouri, to expand the understanding of S100A8/A9 as a prognostic biomarker for COVID-19. Elevated S100A8/A9 serum levels were observed in ICU patients (n = 49, p = 0.0370) and patients with fatal cases of COVID-19 (n = 76, p = 0.0018). We observed no correlation in the S100A8/A9 levels in matched serum and urine samples. Our results support the association of serum S100A8/A9 levels with COVID-19 severity and suggest that further investigation of urine S100A8/A9 as a COVID-19 biomarker is not warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1815-1820
Number of pages6
JournalACS Infectious Diseases
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 13 2023


  • COVID-19
  • S100A8/A9
  • biomarker
  • calprotectin
  • prognosis


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