Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type-IH is a lysosomal storage disease that results from mutations in the IDUA gene causing the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Historically, children with the severe phenotype, MPS-IH (Hurler syndrome) develop progressive neurodegeneration with death in the first decade due to cardio-pulmonary complications. New data suggest that inflammation may play a role in MPS pathophysiology. To date there is almost no information on the pathophysiologic changes within the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of these patients. We evaluated the CSF of 25 consecutive patients with MPS-IH. While CSF glucose and total protein were within the normal range, we found a significantly mean elevated CSF opening pressure at 24 cm H 2 O (range 14-37 cm H 2 O). We observed a 3-fold elevation in CSF heparan sulfate and a 3-8 fold increase in MPS-IH specific non-reducing ends, I0S0 and I0S6. Cytokine analyses in CSF of children with MPS-IH showed significantly elevated inflammatory markers including: MCP-1 SDF-1a, IL-Ra, MIP-1b, IL-8, and VEGF in comparison to unaffected children. This is the largest report of CSF characteristics in children with MPS-IH. Identification of key biomarkers may provide further insight into the inflammatory-mediated mechanisms related to MPS diseases and perhaps lead to improved targeted therapies.