Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) using cardiotocography is a common tool used during labor and delivery for assessment of fetal well-being. It has largely replaced the use of intermittent auscultation and fetal scalp pH sampling. However, data suggesting improved clinical outcomes with the use of EFM are sparse. In this review, the history of EFM is revisited from its inception in the 1960s to current practice, interpretations, and future research goals.
- Electronic fetal monitoring
- Intrapartum continuous monitoring
- Neonatal outcomes