Electromagnetic Breast Imaging: Average Tissue Property Values in Women with Negative Clinical Findings

Steven P. Poplack, Keith D. Paulsen, Alexander Hartov, Paul M. Meaney, Brian W. Pogue, Tor D. Tosteson, Margaret R. Grove, Sandra K. Soho, Wendy A. Wells

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

101 Scopus citations


Representative data are provided for three electromagnetic breast imaging techniques - near-infrared spectroscopy, electrical impedance spectroscopy, and microwave imaging spectroscopy - to serve as potential benchmarks for future investigation. The breasts of 23 women without clinical or mammographic findings of disease were imaged in the coronal plane with nonionizing radiation of varying frequencies. Average electromagnetic property values were reconstructed at each frequency on the basis of computational models of light diffusion, current flow, and microwave propagation. Electromagnetic properties were correlated with subject characteristics and between techniques. Each technique yielded information on breast tissue features (eg, conductivity, permittivity, light scattering, and absorption) that had not previously all been measured in the same individuals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)571-580
Number of pages10
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2004


  • Breast
  • Infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy


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