Elastic characterization of transversely isotropic soft materials by dynamic shear and asymmetric indentation

R. Namani, Y. Feng, R. J. Okamoto, N. Jesuraj, S. E. Sakiyama-Elbert, G. M. Genin, P. V. Bayly

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39 Scopus citations


The mechanical characterization of soft anisotropic materials is a fundamental challenge because of difficulties in applying mechanical loads to soft matter and the need to combine information from multiple tests. A method to characterize the linear elastic properties of transversely isotropic soft materials is proposed, based on the combination of dynamic shear testing (DST) and asymmetric indentation. The procedure was demonstrated by characterizing a nearly incompressible transversely isotropic soft material. A soft gel with controlled anisotropy was obtained by polymerizing a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin solutions in a high field magnet (B 11.7 T); fibrils in the resulting gel were predominantly aligned parallel to the magnetic field. Aligned fibrin gels were subject to dynamic (20-40 Hz) shear deformation in two orthogonal directions. The shear storage modulus was 1.08 ± 0. 42 kPa (mean ± std. dev.) for shear in a plane parallel to the dominant fiber direction, and 0.58 ± 0.21 kPa for shear in the plane of isotropy. Gels were indented by a rectangular tip of a large aspect ratio, aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the normal to the plane of transverse isotropy. Aligned fibrin gels appeared stiffer when indented with the long axis of a rectangular tip perpendicular to the dominant fiber direction. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of asymmetric indentation were used to determine the relationship between direction-dependent differences in indentation stiffness and material parameters. This approach enables the estimation of a complete set of parameters for an incompressible, transversely isotropic, linear elastic material.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4006848
JournalJournal of Biomechanical Engineering
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2012


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