Background. Improved drug regimens are needed to accelerate elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Africa. This study determined whether a single co-administered dose of ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole [IDA] is noninferior to standard 3 annual doses of ivermectin plus albendazole (IA) used in many LF-endemic areas of Africa. Methods. Treatment-naive adults with Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia in Côte d'Ivoire were randomized to receive a single dose of IDA (n = 43) or 3 annual doses of IA (n = 52) in an open-label, single-blinded trial. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who were microfilaria (Mf) negative at 36 months. Secondary endpoints were Mf clearance at 6, 12, and 24 months; inactivation of adult worm nests; and safety. Results. At 36 months posttreatment with IDA, 18/33 (55%; 95% CI, 38-72%) cleared Mf versus 33/42 (79%; 67-91%) with IA (P = .045). At 6 and 12 months IDA was superior to IA in clearing Mf (89% [77-99%] and 71% [56-85%]), respectively, versus 34% (20-48%) and 26% (14-42%) (P < .001). IDA was equivalent to IA at 24 months (61% [45-77%] vs 54% [38-72%]; P = .53). IDA was superior to IA for inactivating adult worms at all time points. Both treatments were well tolerated, and there were no serious adverse events. Conclusions. A single dose of IDA was superior to 2 doses of IA in reducing the overall Mf burden by 24 months. Reinfection may have contributed to the lack of sustained clearance of Mf with IDA. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02974049.
- Lymphatic filariasis