Efficacy and Health-Related Quality of Life Impact of Fecal Microbiota, Live-jslm: A Post Hoc Analysis of PUNCH CD3 Patients at First Recurrence of Clostridioides difficile Infection

Paul Feuerstadt, Jessica R. Allegretti, Erik R. Dubberke, Amy Guo, Adam Harvey, Min Yang, Viviana Garcia-Horton, Mirko Fillbrunn, Glenn Tillotson, Lindy L. Bancke, Kerry LaPlante, Kevin W. Garey, Sahil Khanna

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Abstract

Introduction: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) causes symptoms of varying severity and negatively impacts patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQL). Despite antibiotic treatment, recurrence of CDI (rCDI) is common and imposes clinical and economic burdens on patients. Fecal microbiota, live-jslm (REBYOTA [RBL]) is newly approved in the USA for prevention of rCDI following antibiotic treatments. We analyzed efficacy and HRQL impact of RBL vs. placebo in patients at first rCDI using data from the phase 3 randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, PUNCH CD3. Methods: This post hoc analysis included patients at first rCDI fromPUNCH CD3. Treatment success (i.e., absence of diarrhea within 8 weeks post-treatment) was analyzed adjusting for baseline patient characteristics. HRQL was measured using the Clostridioides difficile Quality of Life Survey (Cdiff32); absolute scores and change from baseline in total and domain (physical, mental, and social) scores were summarized and compared between arms. Analyses were conducted for the trial’s blinded phase only. Results: Among 86 eligible patients (32.8% of the overall trial population, RBL 53 [61.6%], placebo 33 [38.4%]), RBL-treated patients had significantly lower odds of recurrence (i.e., greater probability of treatment success) at week 8 vs. placebo (odds ratio 0.35 [95% confidence interval 0.13, 0.98]). Probability of treatment success at week 8 was 81% for RBL and 60% for placebo, representing 21% absolute and 35% relative increases for RBL (crude proportions 79.2% vs. 60.6%; relative risk 0.53, p = 0.06). Additionally, RBL was associated with significantly higher Cdiff32 total (change score difference 13.5 [standard deviation 5.7], p < 0.05) and mental domain (16.2 [6.0], p < 0.01) scores vs. placebo from baseline to week 8. Conclusion: Compared to placebo, RBL demonstrated a significantly higher treatment success in preventing further rCDI and enhanced HRQL among patients at first recurrence, establishing RBL as an effective treatment to prevent further recurrences in these patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03244644.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-236
Number of pages16
JournalInfectious Diseases and Therapy
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2024

Keywords

  • Clostridioides difficile infection
  • Health-related quality of life
  • PUNCH CD3
  • REBYOTA
  • Treatment efficacy

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